Tuesday, December 17, 2013

Crime In Puerto Rico: Attempts At Analysis And Search For The Solutions; In Facts And Opinions - Web Review

Last Update: Tuesday, December 17, 2013 (11:42 AM 12/17/2013)

Crime In Puerto Rico: Attempts At Analysis And Search For The Solutions; In Facts And Opinions - Web Review

Serious crime rate down in PR in 2013 - Caribbean Business

Issued : Tuesday, December 17, 2013 07:23 AM

Serious crime rate down in PR in 2013

By CB Online Staff

The incidence of serious crime in Puerto Rico declined over the past year, according to Police Department statistics.
The Puerto Rico Police Department said that serious crimes – including murder, rape, robbery, serious assaults, break-ins and car theft – fell 6.7 percent so far this year compared to 2012.
“These numbers reflect the daily efforts of our officers and provide proof of the work that the police are doing every day to improve the quality of life in Puerto Rico,” said Police Superintendent James Tuller, who took over as the island’s top cop this month.
Tuller, a former high-ranking member of the New York Police Department who replaced former Police Superintendent Héctor Pesquera, said more work still needs to be done.
“These results are not enough and compel us to not be complacent and to work harder.”
Through Sunday, a total of 46,664 type 1 crimes had been registered, compared to 50,079 in 2012, according to the Police Department data.
The figure for this year includes 859 murders, 7.4 percent fewer than in 2012, 5,769 robberies (down 5.4 percent) and 13,461 break-ins (down 9.2 percent). 
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crime in puerto rico - GS 

puerto rico crime statistics - GS

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Murder Rate and Fear Rise in Puerto Rico - NYTimes.com

June 20, 2011
Murder Rate and Fear Rise in Puerto Rico
LOÍZA, P.R. — As people strolled past the Alambique liquor store here recently, the puddle of blood and the bullet-shattered storefront behind it scarcely merited a glance. Yet another young man had been shot. Yet another tally would be added to the record books.

For Roberto Clemente, who lives down the street from the crime scene, such casual acceptance illustrates just how deeply Puerto Ricans have been shaken by the island’s murder wave.

“Enough is enough,” said Mr. Clemente, 59, who works for the town doing cleanup duties, as he motioned toward the liquor store. “We live unsafely in our homes. The cops know who did what, but there are no witnesses. Even if you see who did it, you stay quiet.”

Now plagued by a steadily worsening murder rate, more Puerto Ricans are second-guessing their evening plans, contemplating moving to the mainland and sending away for gun permits in larger numbers to protect themselves. And the police are rolling out new strategies they hope will bring things under control.

So far this year, there have been 525 murders in Puerto Rico, a number that is outpacing last year’s 983 homicides, the second-highest ever, and the 995 in 1994. New York City, with a population a bit over twice that of Puerto Rico, reported 199 murders through the middle of this month, with a total of 536 in 2010.

High murder rates are not unusual in Puerto Rico. Between 1980 to 2005 the average annual homicide rate was 19 per 100,000 in Puerto Rico and 8 per 100,000 on the mainland.

Murders on the island declined early last decade, only to spike again recently for the same reasons they did 20 years ago, when drug trafficking, gangs and carjackings rocked Puerto Rico.

José Figueroa Sancha, a former Federal Bureau of Investigation agent who is now superintendent of the Puerto Rico Police Department, said the 17,000-member force (second largest in the country, after New York’s) is now using CompStat, a computer system for tracking crime patterns that was first used successfully in New York City.

“We are transforming the police force and reorganizing them,” Mr. Figueroa said at his headquarters. “We will give them the weapons they need and also the technology we need.”

Last year, Gov. Luis Fortuño deployed the National Guard to try to curb the killings, a tactic used in the early 1990s. But the extra patrols proved ineffective.

While the homicide plague predominates in poor areas, the concern has become acute this year because it has occasionally spilled into San Juan’s tourist areas and crossed into wealthy districts. It has also broken into the open, with shootouts occurring on city streets and major thoroughfares.

Last Wednesday, for example, Maurice Joseph Spagnoletti, an executive vice president of Doral Bank in Puerto Rico, was shot to death as he drove his Lexus down a busy road in San Juan shortly after evening rush. The assailant fired three shots into his neck.

The police in Puerto Rico say that nearly half of all homicides on the island — a popular way station for narcotics shipped from South American to the United States — are connected to drug-trafficking turf wars. Of the other half, 18 so far this year were related to domestic violence and 18 involved people who were gay or transgender.

Two murders were recently reported in Condado, a tourist section, but Puerto Rico has seen no decline in bookings, said Clarisa Jiminéz, the head of the Puerto Rico Hotel and Tourism Association. “It is true we have faced some situations in the past,” she said, “but the tourist areas are very safe.”

Recognizing that the island’s homicide rate is unacceptably high and spiraling higher, Governor Fortuño has labeled it a priority while underscoring that the incidence of other crimes, like robbery and burglary, has decreased. Puerto Rican police officials are also working more closely with federal agencies to bring down the murder rate.

The police department intends to extend training to seven months and beef up instruction on topics like community policing, civil rights and the use of force, Mr. Figueroa said. The department will also begin a system of data collection on episodes that involve the use of force. A new anonymous tip line and Web site were inaugurated recently.

The police force has been under investigation by the Department of Justice since 2008, and the American Civil Liberties Union has been pressing the government to finish.

“An important component of this is the police department’s relationship with the community,” Mr. Figueroa acknowledged. “There have been allegations of police brutality, especially in the Dominican and gay communities.”

The A.C.L.U. has compiled its own report listing accusations of abuse by police officers against Puerto Ricans, including the poor, students and workers.

The past 18 months have seen an increase in the number of protests by Puerto Rican workers and students against the government, which has cut 23,000 jobs and raised university tuition. The police have reacted forcefully to protesters, in some instances using tear gas, Tasers and night sticks. Several protesters have reported being beaten, the A.C.L.U. said.

“While it is nothing new that police have had carte blanche in their dealings with the low-income and immigrant community, it’s the first time it has broken through to dissidents, students and the middle class,” said Anthony D. Romero, the A.C.L.U.’s executive director.

Mr. Romero said he applauded the police department’s recent efforts to address these longstanding problems. “But until the reforms are implemented, it’s hard to know how serious the reforms are,” he said.

The worry is palpable in and around San Juan, even as far away as Ponce, that the problem is getting worse, not better. One woman, a crime victim who was too afraid to give her name, said she was still panicked by an attempted carjacking she experienced nearly three years ago, as the wave was beginning anew.

A man walked up to her Lexus as she was parked in a wealthy neighborhood and pointed a gun at her face. Her two children sat in the backseat. He tried to open her doors. Instead, she put the car in reverse and fled quickly.

She wound up running the man over without realizing it and killing him. He had had more than two dozen charges against him and had been responsible for several other carjackings that week.

With the situation not improving quickly enough, the woman has considered moving to the mainland.

But in Loíza most residents don’t have that option. They have grown fatalistic about the homicides and violence, in general, which has residents avoiding whole swaths of their own neighborhood.

“Now we leave it to God,” said Antonio Ramos García, 59, a lifelong resident who works for the local election board.

See also:

Sentencing Law and Policy: Why are murder rates so high in Puerto Rico and might criminal law be to blame?

'Don't Give Up On Us': Puerto Ricans Wrestle With High Crime : NPR

February 07, 2013 3:27 AM

The island's police superintendent, Hector Pesquera, says tackling the crime problem has been a challenge. Before he ran the police force, which is responsible for the entire island of more than 3.5 million people, Pesquera spent years leading the FBI bureau in Miami.

The picture wasn't pretty when he returned to Puerto Rico. He came home to a fleet of police cars in despair, aging equipment and officers arrested for corruption. Drug cartels, he says, were also moving their businesses to the island from Mexico.

"Plus, unfortunately, we broke the all-time record for murders [in 2011]," he says. "We had 1,136, I believe."

It's a record that Pesquera and his team are trying to combat.

"We had 186, 187 less murders, so we're slowly making a dent," he says.
America's Role

Pesquera says political muscle is needed to make the case to Washington, D.C., that solving the drug and crime problems here will help people on the mainland.

In many ways, Puerto Rico is America's third border, Pesquera says. Drugs that enter from Latin America can head right to the mainland without going through customs. According to Pesquera, 80 percent of the drugs that come through the island end up in cities and communities on the East Coast.
Puerto Rico's resident commissioner, or nonvoting member of Congress, Pedro Pierluisi, says the Department of Homeland Security will soon begin an intensive effort to curb drug violence. DHS would only confirm that it has expanded anti-drug operations in Puerto Rico and continues to deploy personnel there.

But police superintendent Pesquera says he's still not convinced that people on the mainland are paying enough attention to how dire the circumstances are in Puerto Rico.

Violent crime and drugs have long been issues on the island, but many Puerto Ricans say they used to feel safe as long as they weren't involved in the drug war. Now, crime feels more widespread, Romero says, affecting the poor and rich alike.


Puerto Rico tackling fearful murder rate - 12/11/2012 | MiamiHerald.com

After coming under scathing criticism for a lackluster response to a surge in the Caribbean drug trade and the violence that accompanied it, the federal government has teamed with local law enforcement to target gangs and robbers caught with guns. The feds appear to have finally found a strategy to tamp the unprecedented murder rate, which succeeded where air patrols and cutter deployments could not: locking up the bad guys.

“You’re never going to see a headline: ‘This is how many murders were prevented,’ ” said Hector Pesquera, Puerto Rico’s police superintendent, responsible for what is essentially an island-wide police force. By November, “175 fewer people were murdered in Puerto Rico this year. That’s an 18 percent drop. That’s huge. We’ll do another 175 next year and keep doing that until it’s at a manageable level.”

In 2011, Puerto Rico broke its own record by logging 1,135 homicides — 30 killings per 100,000 residents.

Read more here: http://www.miamiherald.com/2012/12/11/v-print/3137968/puerto-rico-tackling-fearful-murder.html#storylink=cpy

Crime in Puerto Rico

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Do you live in Puerto Rico? We need your help: Add data for Puerto Rico
Crime Index:59.30
Safety Index:40.70

Crime rates in Puerto Rico

Level of crime
Crime increasing in the past 3 years
Worries home broken and things stolen
Worries being mugged or robbed
Worries car stolen
Worries things from car stolen
Worries attacked
Worries being insulted
Worries being subject to a physical attack because of your skin colour, ethnic origin or religion
Problem people using or dealing drugs
Problem property crimes such as vandalism and theft
Problem violent crimes such as assault and armed robbery
Problem corruption and bribery

Safety in Puerto Rico

Safety walking alone during daylight
Safety walking alone during night
Contributors: 67
Last update: November, 2013
These data are based on perceptions of visitors of this website in the past 2 years.
If value is 0, it means it is perceived as very low, and if value is 100, it means it is perceived as very high.


Crime and Solutions for Puerto Rico

Let Us Not Remain Idle Amid an Epidemic

Puerto Rico has already seen 646 murders this year. The island, which is about 100 miles long and 30 miles wide, has a population of 3.6 million. While the number of murders is high, it is actually down from last year by this date when there were over 700.
That is good news, but not good enough. With more than 1,100 murders in 2011, the island led the nation (and still does) in murder. More than Detroit, more than Washington, more than New York City, and more than Chicago.
At present the island is on track to have around 800 murders this year. Total crime is also extremely high — in excess of 70,000 incidents and on track for another 100,000 this year. Of course, that’s reported crime only. Previous police superintendents have indicated that for every reported crime there are three to four more that go unreported.
To say that crime is epidemic in Puerto Rico would be an understatement. So what is the problem?
Yes, you guessed it; drug trafficking drives violent crime on the island. This is not the marijuana smoker lighting up and then lighting up a crowd with an AK-47. These are the local and international drug trafficking organizations fighting for supremacy, killing witnesses, and punishing disloyalty. Depending on whose statistics you use, anywhere from 50 to 80 percent of Puerto Rico’s murders are related to drug trafficking.
Violent robberies, kidnappings, and domestic abuse account for most of the others.
Curiously, while local drug gangs are as heavily armed as guerilla armies, honest law abiding citizens must jump through enormous hoops to acquire a weapons license. And even then, using the weapon in self-defense may not be acceptable under the long arm of the law.
Petty crime and property crime are driven by a number of factors. There is drug addiction, as many drug addicts will do anything to get money for a fix — from prostitution to pulling wires from public street lamps to sell the copper. Then there is a culture of crime that has been building for some time on the island. Contrary to Puerto Rico’s original culture of respect, it shows no respect for private property or for others and indicates a culture of entitlement on crack.
Solving Puerto Rico’s crime problems must be a multifaceted approach, as with the many problems facing the island.
First, the war on drugs must end. Only by legalizing, regulating, and taxing drugs do you take away the reason for most of the island’s murders. This action has a side benefit of reducing corruption since drug lords will no longer need to buy police officers and other officials to protect their businesses. It also reduces the total prison population, since it would allow the release of inmates who are in prison solely for drug crimes, and it would prevent wasted money on future prosecutions for those crimes.
Second, Puerto Rico needs a strong and quick death penalty. Violent criminals need to fear their punishment. Right now, outside of Federal Court, there is no death penalty on the island, except at the hands of the criminals.
Third, the age of entitlement must come to an end. People who have to work to earn their own food, housing, and medical care are less likely to spend their days stealing from others. They are more likely to value property and thus respect others. Schools must also teach and enforce the fundamental respect for private property and the basic rules of right and wrong. This should also be accompanied with teaching children how to be self-sufficient and to earn a living on their own and not expect the government or others to provide for them what is not theirs.
Fourth, prison should hurt. That means mandatory work, mandatory classrooms, and mandatory counseling and psychological evaluation and treatment. I would not be opposed to the use of corporal punishment for some criminals as well. I call it the “light socket principle,” we don’t take an unprotected piece of metal and stick it into a light socket with our bare hands because we know it would hurt. Somehow, some way we must inculcate this concept as it relates to crime into the minds of the criminal element. Mandatory work and education programs need to give them something to do other than crime when they get out of prison.
Finally, the right to keep and bear arms should be guaranteed and the right of self defense protected. Puerto Rico’s restrictive gun laws should be repealed or overthrown and the process for obtaining a weapon should be streamlined. No one should lose their weapons, even during an investigation when those weapons were used in self defense.
The message is clear: if you want a change, you must actually make a change. Yet, so many of these proposals are politically impossible — not because the politicians don’t see the need for change, but because the public finds many of them abhorrent. Yet if we do not act to change the policies that create or facilitate crime, do we not become an accessory after the fact?
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Frank Worley-LopezAbout Frank Worley-Lopez
Worley-Lopez is one of the two founders of the originalLibertarian Party of Puerto Rico and its first state chairman. He is the author of A Puerto Rican Manifesto (Un Manifiesto Puertorriqueño) and a former Radio and TV host and Puerto Rican Senate aide. Follow him @FrankWorleyPR.

Anti-crime effort in Puerto Rico is paying off, officials say

SAN JUAN Thu Sep 26, 2013 2:48pm EDT
(Reuters) - An anti-crime initiative that put more federal agents in Puerto Rico and boosted coordination with the U.S. mainland is making streets safer in both places, top U.S. and Puerto Rican law enforcement officials said on Thursday.
The effort, Operation Caribbean Resilience, began in July 2012 and has been expanded over the last three months in the U.S. territory.
Over the last 12 months, the operation has resulted in the arrest of more than 320 people and the seizure of more than 170 firearms, 8,000 rounds of ammunition, more than $155,000 in cash, and a wide range of drugs including cocaine, heroin, marijuana, ecstasy, Percocet, and oxycodone.
"Through our joint efforts ... we have not only made the streets of Puerto Rico much safer, but also improved security in the mainland United States," said John Sandweg, acting director of Immigration and Customs Enforcement.
Sandweg said the operation was entering a new phase targeting drug gangs and criminal organizations responsible for violent crime in Puerto Rico.
The island's non-voting member of the U.S. House of Representatives, Resident Commissioner Pedro Pierluisi, hailed the operation as a success.
"Now, it is critical that we sustain and build upon the gains we have made," said Pierluisi.
The federal government is primarily responsible for securing Puerto Rico's maritime border, and plays a key role in disrupting criminal activity on the Caribbean island, he said.
Puerto Rico had a record 1,117 killings during 2011. The tally dropped to 978 killings in 2012, according to the Puerto Rico Police Department. So far this year, 648 killings were registered through September 25, compared with 719 during the same period last year.
The crime problem, along with a seven-year economic slide, is driving many Puerto Ricans to the continental United States. More Puerto Ricans live stateside than on the island.
Puerto Rico's population has been on the decline for the past several years, with U.S. Census Bureau estimating it at 3.68 million in 2012, down from 3.81 million in 2000.
The operation is a joint initiative led by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement's Homeland Security Investigations unit, with support from U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the U.S. Coast Guard, the Puerto Rico Police Department and the municipal police departments of San Juan, Ponce, and Toa Alta.
Some 30 additional Homeland Security Investigations agents were assigned to high-crime areas with links to transnational crime. The Coast Guard boosted patrols of smuggling routes around Puerto Rico. Transportation Security Administration officials increased screening efforts to intercept drugs and weapons smuggled in baggage and cargo at airports and seaports.

(Reporting by Reuters in San Juan, Editing by Jane Sutton and Mohammad Zargham)

Fact Sheet: Fight Crime in Puerto Rico

The Department of Homeland Security (Department of Homeland Security DHS) is working closely with stakeholders to create and maintain a unified and coordinated to support the implementation of research, data gathering intelligence, interception and other policing strategy with the aim of:
  • Disrupt the illicit flow of weapons / drugs / money / migrants entering Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States, with particular attention to transnational criminal organizations
  • Interrupting the flow of illicit drugs / weapons / money from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the contiguous U.S. states and Europe
  • Focusing on violent gang members to bring in federal court
  • Develop the capacity of law enforcement and social services at the local level:
    • Address current and emerging issues relating to crime;
    • Improve the capacity of the island for the treatment of addiction and existing educational programs as part of a restoration effort;
    • Create outreach programs, such as law enforcement at Community level in order to inform the public and encourage individuals to support the efforts of law enforcement agencies, and
    • Identify and bring to justice members of violent local gangs, criminal organizations and transnational organized crime elements.
Current efforts to enforce the law in Puerto Rico
DHS has begun a series of operations that use the existing police capacity to prevent, detect and disrupt the illegal maritime traffic in the region to combat the flow of drugs, weapons, money and migrants.
  • The Air and Marine Division Caribbean (Caribbean Air and Marine Branch or CAMB) -
    • A combination of six aircraft and 10 interceptor Midnight Express (fast patrol boats) used to combat drug trafficking in the area.
    • In fiscal year 2011, CHANGE 10.250 pounds of confiscated narcotics and $ 2.1 million in cash.
  • Border Interagency Group Caribbean (Caribbean Border Interagency Group or CBIG) -
    • An alliance between the (Caribbean Air and Marine Branch) Caribbean Marine Air Division and the Customs and Border Protection United States (U.S. Customs and Border Protection or CBP), the Coast Guard of the United States (U.S. Coast Guard or USCG) The Immigration and Customs Control (Immigration and Customs Enforcement, or ICE) Homeland Security Investigations (Homeland Security Investigations, or HSI), the Attorney General of the United States (U.S. Attorney's Office) for the District of Puerto Rico and United Forces of Rapid Action (FURA) of Puerto Rico in order to stop the flow of illegal aliens and contraband to the Caribbean.
    • This effort in effect reduced illegal immigration to Puerto Rico in 80 percent
  • Op-Sea Wall
    • A joint operation against drugs by the USCG, CBP, Directorate for Drug Control (Drug Enforcement Administration, or DEA) and the Dominican Republic Navy, directed mainly against the flow arrival areas of the southern region of Spanish and the secondary flow of the Dominican Republic to Puerto Rico
    • Together, these agencies conduct aerial surveillance and marine patrol, and provide forces intercept plus interception on the surface of the coast.
    • Since May 2012, the Operational Sea Wall has resulted in the interception of more than 7,000 kilograms of cocaine and the arrest of 29 suspected traffickers, an increase of 300% over the previous period of 12 months.
  • In September 2012, the Operational Caribbean Guard (OCG) DHS was implemented to intercept illegal weapons, drugs and money in and out of Puerto Rico. There are six separate up to support the OCG projects focused on inspecting cargo, mail, ships and people that enter and leave Puerto Rico.
    • CBP currently examining airline flight operations, including mobilization of unmanned aircraft systems from stations in Florida to Puerto Rico region, to determine the most effective use of flight hours to support the efforts of the OCG.
  • Unified Resolve-Operative District 7 Coast Guard U.S. is allocating additional resources and capacity to prevent, detect and disrupt the illegal maritime traffic in the region to combat the flow of drugs, weapons, money and migrants.
  • Area High Intensity Drug Trafficking (High-Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, or HIDTA)
    • This classification of the Office of National Drug Control Policy (Office of National Drug Control) is an alliance of DHS components (CBP, ICE, USCG and USSS) that focuses on disrupting drug trafficking in Puerto Rico and around.
    • When combined with the Task Force on Organized Crime Narcotics (Organized Crime Drug Enforcement Taskforce or OCDETF) Strike Force is Route Caribbean (Caribbean Corridor Strike Force), a project aimed at stopping drug trafficking organizations operating in South America, carrying cargoes and many kilos in the Caribbean.
  • Operating Community Shield - a draft of ICE HSI fighting violent and organized gangs, who are responsible for the majority of violent crimes in Puerto Rico.
  • Security Working Group for Border Control (Border Enforcement Security Taskforce or BEST) - Collaboration between CBP, USCG, the Bureau of Alcohol, Snuff, Firearms and Explosives (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, or ATF) The Police Department Puerto Rico, the Police Department San Juan, Colombia's national police, the Port Authority of Puerto Rico and the Treasury Department of Puerto Rico, dedicated to secure the border of Puerto Rico.
  • Operating Centre and Marine Air Caribbean (Caribbean Air and Marine Operations Center or CAMOC) - Police surveillance radar art, used for air combat drug trafficking.
  • The Coast Guard U.S. has 40 agreements with partner countries to help stop potential criminals before they reach the U.S. border.
  • The Working Group of the President on the Status of Puerto Rico (President's Task Force on Puerto Rico's Status) - An interagency research group that produced a report with suggestions on ways to stimulate economic, social, political and security in Puerto Rico .                                                   
Data Collection and Data Intelligence
  • DHS is using the 2013 Threat Assessment of the Office of National Drug Control (Office of National Drug Control Policy) HIDTA as a framework for improving the analysis of the situation in the Puerto Rico / Virgin Islands USA. The DHS is also using components capable of intelligence and criminal investigation of DHS to identify and combat smuggling activities dedicated / washing guns, drugs and money in and out of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States. 
  • DHS components in Puerto Rico have a strong relationship with other partners across the island chain in order to collaborate and promote the exchange of information.
  • In addition, DHS is expanding its partnerships, agreements and exchange of information internationally to facilitate joint operations or response to illicit trafficking into Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands of the United States.
  • DHS is working through the Coast Guard of the United States to identify and combat criminal activities and smuggling, through intelligence gathering, to support maritime interception operations in the region. 
Support efforts to develop Great Local Capacity
  • DHS works with the Department of Justice and other federal and local partners on the island to establish the strategy "Lost Our Neighborhood" ("Take Back our Neighborhood") for housing projects with a high crime rate in the region :
    • Coordinate the efforts of local law enforcement
    • Maximize visible mobilization of law enforcement / police activities over a sustained period
    • Maintain a strong presence of experienced officers to improve the chances of maintaining order at the community level
    • To assess the ability of Puerto Rico to expand use / flexibility OPSG and other DHS grants
    • Working through the Federal Training Center Agents Act (Federal Law Enforcement Training Center) with the Police Department Puerto Rico to improve the standards of training and professionalism 
Continuous efforts
The DHS is dedicated to creating an interagency working group under the leadership of DHS, in charge of collecting, storing and analyzing information and intelligence from all sources on weapons, drugs and financial data. This working group, in coordination with partner agencies, multiple jurisdictions conduct research, focused on stopping the flow of drugs, money, weapons and migrants in and out of Puerto Rico.

  1. Illegal drugs in Puerto Rico - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


    Jump to Crime reduction - [edit]. The Puerto Rican government has implemented a series of law enforcement operations in relation to the federal "war on ...
  1. Anti-crime effort in Puerto Rico is paying off, officials say | Reuters


    Sep 26, 2013 - SAN JUAN (Reuters) - An anti-crime initiative that put more federal agents in Puerto Rico and boosted coordination with the U.S. mainland is ...

  2. Crime and Solutions for Puerto Rico


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  3. Puerto Rican Crime statistics, definitions and sources. - NationMaster

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  1. 'Don't Give Up On Us': Puerto Ricans Wrestle With High Crime : NPR

    www.npr.org › News › US › Puerto Rico: A Disenchanted Island

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crime in puerto rico statistics - GS

crime - GS

Crime and Behavior: Links and References - 1 - Last Update on: 4:15 PM 12/13/2013 

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Crime and Behavior: Links and References - 1 - Last Update on: 4:15 PM 12/13/2013

Crime - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Correlates of crime - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Criminology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
crime - Google Search
types of crime - Google Search
causes of crime - Google Search
Crime Human Nature: The Definitive Study of the Causes of Crime - James Q. Wilson, Richard J. Herrnstein - Google Books
The Real Root Causes of Violent Crime: The Breakdown of Marriage, Family, and Community
What causes crime? - UK - News - The Independent
causes of crime theories - Google Search
biological theory of crime definition - Google Search
crime in puerto rico - Google Search
crime in puerto rico stats - Google Search
puerto rico - DHS.gov Search Results

causes of crime - GS

Crime - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  1. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime

    The term crime does not, in modern times, have any simple and universally accepted definition, but one definition is that a crime, also called an offence or a ...


Correlates of crime - From Wikipedia

Biosocial criminology[edit]

Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors. While contemporary criminology has been dominated by sociological theories, biosocial criminology also recognizes the potential contributions of fields such as geneticsneuropsychology, and evolutionary psychology.[9]

Handbook of Crime Correlates (Google eBook)

Front Cover
Academic PressMay 7, 2009 - Psychology - 264 pages

Over the past two centuries, many aspects of criminal behavior have been investigated. Finding this information and making sense of it all is difficult when many studies would appear to offer contradictory findings. The Handbook of Crime Correlates collects in one source the summary analysis of crime research worldwide. It provides over 400 tables that divide crime research into nine broad categories: Pervasiveness and intra-offending relationships Demographic factors Ecological and macroeconomic factors Family and peer factors Institutional factors Behavioral and personality factors Cognitive factors Biological factors Crime victimization and fear of crime Within these broad categories, tables identify regions of the world and how separate variables are or are not positively or negatively associated with criminal behavior. Criminal behavior is broken down into separate offending categories of violent crime, property crime, drug offenses, sex offenses, delinquency, general and adult offenses, and recidivism. Accompanying each table is a description of what each table indicates in terms of the positive or negative association of specific variables with specific types of crime by region. This book should serve as a valuable resource for criminal justice personnel and academics in the social and life sciences interested in criminal behavior.
References and all tabular materials can be found at our website: http://booksite.academicpress.com/Ellis/dev
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Behavior and Law: Crime and Behavior: Links and References

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References and all tabular materials can be found at our website: http://booksite.academicpress.com/Ellis/dev. More ». Posted by Mike Nova at 12/13/2013 01:59:00 PM · Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook ...

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